维基百科:引用维基百科

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引用维基百科

引用维基百科前的告诫

对于任何来源,特别是不为人知的作者,您应该要保持警惕,及如果可能的话,独立查证维基百科资料的准确性。对于大多数用途,特别是学术用途,维基百科未必是一个可以接受的来源;[1]事实上,有些教授和老师可能会完全抵制以维基百科作为来源的资料。当使用维基百科的资料时请加以查证,这句话尤其正确。

当使用维基百科作为研究计划的来源时,我们建议您要特别谨慎。维基百科和其他百科全书的正常学术用途是用于取得某问题的一般事实以及搜集关键字、参考文献和书目指示,但以其本身而言却不是一个来源。谨记维基百科是一个维基Wiki),意指世界上任何人都可以编辑条目、删除正确资料或增加错误资料,且读者未必能够判别这些资料的准确性。

不过,我们亦有信心维基百科能为其涵盖的大多数主题提供良好的概述。参见Wikipedia:利用维基百科作研究利用维基百科作学术用途的告诫和我们的免责声明页,以取得更多资讯。

维基是一个特殊的媒体,且本身并不能遵照惯常的书本引文格式。维基不是纸本文件,所以您需要改为使用电子引文格式。确实的格式将依照您所采用的引文指导而定,但是这里有一些一般原则需要考虑:

  • 一项特殊的引文工具可协助您的引用。在每项条目的左方,您可以找到名为“引用此文”的连结。点击后将带您到一个列出相关资讯的页面,以及自动以各种格式生成的引文。注意确保引文符合所有条件仍是您的责任。
  • 一般而言,您不应该引用任何维基百科条目的特定作者。维基百科是由众多作者共同编写的。不过,如果您真的需要寻找某特定条目的作者名单,您可以检查页面历史。作者只会以IP地址或用户自行选择的用户名列出;您一般不能查证甚至不能猜测他们的真实身份。
  • 您的引文一般应列出条目名称及“维基百科,自由的百科全书”字样,就像你会列出文件出版物内的条目。每项条目应视为一个独立的引文。
  • 多数的引文格式可能会要求您提供完整的条目URL。您可以点击此页左方工具箱内的“永久连结”。这会使URL包含一个唯一的识别符,如此您可以将您的参考文献联系到您所参考的条目的确实修订版本。采用此方法可能或未必适合,视乎您的参考文献的上文下理。这可显示您所看到的修订版本,并忽略在查阅页面后所做的任何更改。如果想更为简洁,您可以使用常规的URL,或只是网站的URL(例如 http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/ 的一项中文条目),因为条目的URL可以从条目标题推断出来。
  • 该引文格式可能会要求您提供条目修订版本的完整日期和时间。如果您使用了永久连结功能,以上规定并非必要。不过,最新修订版本的日期和时间可于每页页底找到(于版权告示之上)。

范例

以下范例假设了您引用维基百科条目Plagiarism,使用提交于2004年7月22日 10:55 UTC的修订版本,而且您于2004年8月10日查阅该条目,除非特别注明者。

APA格式

APA格式引用,由美国心理学会建议的引用格式:[1]

  • Plagiarism. (2004, July 22). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/wiki/Plagiarism

注意在APA第5版格式内,以下的规则适用于参考文献:

  • 对于参考书籍,包括百科全书、字典和词汇表,在书籍标题前须加上“In”字。此字不是以斜体显示,但书籍标题则需要。
  • 书籍标题以大写显示,即首字词、冒号后首字词和专有名词用大写。
  • URL必须连往您所引用的确实页面。
  • URL后没有标点符号。
  • 该名词或条目标题显示于作者位置内。多字名词或标题用大写,即首字词、冒号后首字词和专有名词用大写。

对于分段文章,适当的内文引文是 ("Plagiarism," 2004) 或 ("Plagiarism," 2004, para. #) ,如果您直接引用该资料。注意 para. # 代码页面内的段落编号,即资讯出现的地方。如果该页面有多个标题,放置子标题和包含在标题的段落编号的做法亦可接受。

例如,直接引用少于40字的适当内文引文是:

"Plagiarism is the use of another person’s work (this could be his or her words, products or ideas) for personal advantage, without proper acknowledgment of the original work" ("Plagiarism," 2004, "Definition," para. 1).

如果该引用资料多于40字,请改为使用块引用格式。

另一例子,分段文章的适当内文引文是:

Plagiarism is stealing the works of others ("Plagiarism," 2004).

APA Style requires that you provide a separate reference entry for each term you are citing in your paper because 1) you must provide a URL for each term that goes directly to the term, and 2) you must provide the publication date for each term separately. However, if you are discussing the "online encyclopedia" itself, not a term in the encyclopedia, you might need to reference the site itself. The proper citation of Wikipedia, the site, as referenced in APA 5th Edition Style is:

  • Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. (2004, July 22). FL: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved August 10, 2004, from http://www.wikipedia.org

The in-text citation formation would be (Wikipedia, 2004).

MLA格式

MLA格式引用,由现代语言协会建议的引用格式:

  • "Plagiarism." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 10 Aug. 2004. <http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350>.

Note that MLA style calls for both the date of publication (or its latest update) and the date on which the information was retrieved. According to the most recent edition of the MLA Handbook, there is now information required about any foundation involved. Also note that many schools/institutions slightly change the syntax. Another example:


  • "Plagiarism." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 22 July 2004 <http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350>.

Be sure to double check the exact syntax your institution requires.

For citation of Wikipedia as a site, use:

MHRA格式

MHRA格式引用,由现代人文研究会建议的引用格式:

  • Wikipedia contributors, 'Plagiarism', Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 22 July 2004, 10:55 UTC, <http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350> [accessed 10 August 2004]

Chicago格式

Chicago格式引用:

  • Wikipedia contributors, "Plagiarism," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350 (accessed August 10, 2004).

Note that the Chicago Manual of Style states that "Well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies."

CBE/CSE格式

CBE/CSE格式引用,由科学编辑理事会建议的引用格式:

  • Wikipedia contributors. Plagiarism [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2004 Jul 22, 10:55 UTC [cited 2004 Aug 10]. Available from: http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350.

Turabian格式

The following are examples of how to cite Wikipedia articles according to A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th edition, by Kate L. Turabian (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996). ISBN 0226816265 (cloth), ISBN 0226816273 (paper).

Note on Turabian style: Please understand that Turabian does not have rules that cover anything like Wikipedia. These examples are based on "reading between the lines" and assimilating rules from various not-so-similar cases that Turabian does cover. If the party to which you are submitting your paper is particularly strict, you might want to find out if they have their own adaptation of Turabian that would apply in this case. Alternately, you could always consult with the party before the deadline to make sure it's acceptable.

注释

1"Endangered Species," in Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia; (Wikimedia Foundation Inc., updated 14 October 2003, 13:19 UTC) [encyclopedia on-line]; available from http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/wiki/Endangered Species; Internet; retrieved 24 October 2006.

2Wikipedia contributors, "Marketing."Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/wiki/Marketing (Accessed June 27,2007)

参考书目

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Updated 14 October 2003, 13:19 UTC. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/wiki/Endangered Species. Internet. Retrieved 5 December 2003.

(According to Turabian 6th edition, ¶9.8, for entries in the bibliography, "the first line of each entry is flush left, and any run over lines are indented five spaces". This presentation does not follow that rule.)

行文插入参考

("Plagiarism," Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia)

(Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, s.v. "Plagiarism")

参考名单

Plagiarism. 14 October 2003, 13:19 UTC. In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. Encyclopedia on-line. Available from http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/wiki/Plagiarism. Internet. Retrieved 5 December 2003.

(Indenting is like that of the bibliography.)

引用到维基百科

The Harvard Journal of Law and Technology has adopted the following format for citations to articles in Wikipedia:

  • [Signal] Wikipedia, [article], http://en.wikipedia/wiki/[article] [(optional other parenthetical)] (as of [date], [time] GMT).

Here is an example:

  • See Wikipedia, Bluebook, http://en.wikipedia/wiki/Bluebook (describing history and application of the Bluebook) (as of Mar. 21, 2006, 20:50 GMT).

This format derives from Rule 18.2 of the 18th edition of the Bluebook, though the date parenthetical differs slightly. The parenthetical here is designed to specify the exact version of the article to which the author is referring, recognizing that articles can and do change often. The date and time used should correspond exactly to the latest version listed in the article's Wikipedia history page that states the proposition for which you are citing it. Use of GMT conforms to the timestamp format used in those history entries (e.g., use 24-hour notation to avoid AM/PM).

BibTeX记录

 @misc{ wiki:###,
   author = "Wikipedia",
   title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
   year = "2004",
   url = "http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350",
   note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]"
 }

When using the LaTeX package url (\usepackage{url} somewhere in the preamble) which tends to give much more nicely formatted web addresses, the following may be preferred:

 @misc{ wiki:###,
   author = "Wikipedia",
   title = "Plagiarism --- {W}ikipedia{,} The Free Encyclopedia",
   year = "2004",
   url = "\url{http://wiwiwiki.kfd.me/_en/w/index.php?title=Plagiarism&oldid=5139350}",
   note = "[Online; accessed 22-July-2004]"
 }

AMA格式

AMA格式引用,由美国医学协会建议的引用格式:[2]

参见

参考文献

  1. ^ Anthropology 333 syllabus from American River College (PDF). [2006-02-07]. Do NOT use Wikipedia or other online or print encyclopedias as a source for your paper.